There are three main types of battery in the cars, Lead-Acid battery, NiMH battery, and a lithium-ion battery. For electric cars, the lithium-ion battery is much better. You can see the advantages and disadvantages of the follows.
A lead-acid battery, also known as a lead-acid battery, is a type of battery in which the electrodes are mainly made of lead and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution.
Generally divided into two types of open-type batteries and valve-regulated batteries.
The former requires periodic acid injection for maintenance, while the latter is a maintenance-free battery.
The production process is much mature. The cost is lower than the other 2 types of batteries.
The electrolyte is not friendly with the environment. The working voltage & energy density are lower. The shape is limited. The weight is big.
The cost of lead-acid batteries is much lower than the type of batteries. But it limited by lower rating of charging & discharging for lower speed cars.
Nickel-metal hydride battery as known as NiMH battery.
It is improved from a nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd battery), which replaces cadmium (Cd) with a metal that can absorb hydrogen.
Nickel-metal hydride batteries have a larger output current than carbon-zinc or alkaline batteries and are relatively more suitable for high-power consumption products. Some special models even have a larger output current than ordinary nickel-cadmium batteries.
The working voltage & energy density is higher than the lead-acid battery. It can support over-charging & over-discharging.
The memory effect is higher and the cost is higher, too. The most shape is columniform so that it can’t be used for the smaller applications.
Generally, it’s used for consumer electronics products.
Lithium-ion battery (Lithium-ion battery) is a rechargeable battery, which mainly relies on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes to work.
Lithium-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as an electrode material.
At present, the commonly used cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries are lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium manganate (LiMn2O4), lithium nickelate (LiNiO2), and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4).
The energy density and working voltage are much higher than the other 2 types of batteries. It’s lighter without memory effect and friendly with the environment. The battery life is long because of lower self-discharge. The shape is multiplex so that it can be used for different applications.
The cost is the highest. The working temperature is limited. The technology of lithium-ion batteries hasn’t updated greatly.
It often used for 3C filed. More and more electric cars accept it.